Suspension and Steering


1. General Description

1.1 Front Suspension

1.2 Rear Suspension

1.3 Steering

2. Maintenance

3. Troubleshooting

3.1 Basic Troubleshooting Principles

3.2 Diagnostic Inspection and Testing

Tire Wear

Isolating Pulling Symptoms


4. Wheels, Tires, and Alignment

4.1 Wheels and Tires



Winter Tires

4.2 Alignment

Four-wheel Alignment

Camber Adjustment

Toe Adjustment

Centerline Adjustment (four-wheel alignment only)

4.3 Alignment Specifications

5. Front Suspension

5.1 Front Suspension Struts

Checking Shock Absorbers

Removing and Installing Front Suspension Struts

Disassembling and Assembling Front Suspension Strut

5.2 Drive Axles and Constant Velocity Joints

Removing and Installing Drive Axles

Removing and Installing Constant Velocity Joints

Disassembling and Inspecting Constant Velocity Joints

Removing and Installing Drive Axle Vibration Damper

5.3 Ball Joints

Inspecting and Replacing Control Arm Ball Joints

5.4 Bearings and Bushings

Removing and Installing Wheel Bearing Housings and Wheel Bearings

Control Arm Bushings

Repairing Subframe Mounting

6. Rear Suspension

6.1 Rear Shock Absorbers and Springs

Removing and Installing Rear Shock Absorbers and Springs

6.2 Rear Wheel Bearings

Removing and Installing Rear Wheel Bearings

Adjusting Rear Wheel Bearings

6.3 Rear Axle Beam

Removing and Installing Rear Suspension as a Unit

Replacing Axle Beam Bushings

7. Steering

7.1 Steering Column

Removing and Installing Steering Wheel

Removing and Installing Steering Column Switches

Replacing Ignition/Steering Lock Cylinder

7.2 Steering Gear and Tie Rods

Inspecting Tie Rod Ends

Replacing Inner Tie Rod Boots

Replacing and Adjusting Tie Rods

Centering Manual Steering Rack

Adjusting Steering Gearbox

Removing and Installing Steering Gearbox

7.3 Power-Assisted Steering

Draining and Filling Power Steering Fluid

Pressure Testing Power Steering System

Power Steering Pump

8. Suspension and Steering Technical Data

I. Tightening Torques

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