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The four-cylinder engine is front-mounted and water-cooled. Valves are operated by a belt-driven overhead camshaft. Several versions of this engine are covered in this section of the manual. The basic gasoline-fueled 8-valve engines are all of 1781 cc (109 cu. in.) displacement, commonly referred to as 1.8 liter, with horsepower ratings (SAE net) ranging from 85 to 102. The 16-valve engines, in 1.8 liter and 2.0 liter (1984 cc) versions, feature a cross-flow cylinder head design with dual overhead camshafts and four valves per cylinder (two intake and two exhaust) which raises rated horsepower to 123 and 134 respectively. In addition, there are diesel engines of 1588 cc (96.9 cu. in.) displacement or 1.6 liters. The basic diesel engine is rated at 52 horsepower. The two turbocharged diesel engines (Turbo diesel and ECO diesel) are rated at 68 and 59 horsepower, respectively. Additional information on all these engines appears in 1. General Description.

The transverse-mounted engine is bolted to a bellhousing on the transaxle and is inclined toward the rear of the car-thereby permitting a lower hood line and improving weight distribution. The engine and the transaxle are supported as a single unit by bonded rubber and hydraulic mounts which reduce the transmission of noise and vibration to the rest of the car. The engine and transaxle are removed as a unit, although the transaxle alone can be removed without removing the engine.

The engine's crosswise placement makes possible a roomier passenger compartment and concentrates weight over the (front) driving wheels where it will improve traction in mud or snow. Despite a slight forward weight bias when the vehicle is empty, total vehicle weight is distributed about equally on the front and rear wheels when the car is loaded. Equal weight distribution increases vehicle stability and assures precise handling.

The information in this section of the manual is intended to serve as a guide both to car owners and to professional mechanics. Some of the operations may require special equipment and experience. If you lack the skills, tools, or a suitable workplace for servicing or repairing the engine, we suggest you leave these repairs to an authorized Volkswagen dealer or other qualified shop. We especially urge you to check with your authorized Volkswagen dealer before beginning any repairs on a car which may be covered wholly or in part by any of the extensive warranties issued by Volkswagen United States, Inc.

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